Common Name: Oriental spruce
Origin/Ecology: Native to Caucasus and Turkey
Habit: Large tree growing to 30-45 m tall.
Leaves: Needle-like leaves, shortest of any spruce, 6o-8 mm long, rhombic in cross-section, dark green with inconspicuous stomatal lines.
Leaf Arrangement: Spiral
Flowers and Fruit:Slender cylindric-cone, 5-9 cm long and 1.5 cm broad, red to purple when young, maturing dark brown 5-7 months after pollination, with stiff-smoothly rounded scales.
Water Use, Soil: Average, medium moisture, well-drained soils. Prefers rich, moist soils, but tolerates some poor or rocky soils. Moderately drought tolerant.
Exposure: Full sun.
Landscape Uses: Ornamental in large gardens.
Limitations: Needle cast, canker, rust, aphids, scale, budworms, bagworms, spider mites.